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Routing

The endless story of OSPF vs IS-IS – Part 2 “The history”

In our previous post we started consolidating the endless story of OSPF vs IS-IS, in this post we will cover the historical part of the story, it might not be interesting for some people, but I do believe that the history is what makes the future, so please bare with me through this post. The IS-IS protocol was developed in 1987 by Digital Equipment Corporation (DEC) as part of DECnet Phase V. and was standardized later in 1992 by the International Standards Organization (ISO) in ISO/IEC 10589:1992, the second and current edition ISO/IEC 10589:2002 cancels and replaces the first edition. …

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IS-IS DIS in Practice

In the previous post IS-IS Neighbor Discovery we have discussed how IS-IS automatically discovers neighbors, in this post we will discuss the DIS role in broadcast networks. After the adjacency state reached the UP state the DIS election process take place, the router with the highest priority value (0-127 specified in the Priority field of the IIH PDU) win the election, if multiple routers have the same priority which is the case in most scenarios due to the default value “64” of most implementations, the router with the highest SNPA (MAC address discovered from the MAC header of the received …

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IS-IS Neighbor Discovery

Like other routing and signaling protocols IS-IS has built-in automatic neighbor discovery mechanism which is known by IIHs (IS-IS Hello PDUs), because IS-IS is not IP based protocol the IIH PDUs and all other IS-IS PDUs are directly encapsulated on the data-link layer. IS-IS has two hierarchical levels (L1 and L2) and two network types (Point-to-Point and Broadcast) so it’s essential to have different types of hello messages or PDUs for serve these networks since the data-link layer for broadcast and P2P links have different style of addressing so they need different treatment, due to this differences  there are three …

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The Role of BGP in MPLS networks

In almost every book you will read about MPLS, the author will state that one of the MPLS benefits is having a BGP free core network; sometimes they explain it sometimes not. However, to really understand this statement I encourage you to imagine removing MPLS from your core network and see what adjustments you need to do in order to get the transit traffic to its destination. Do this  just in your mind’s eye please If you are not willing to do this I will try in this post to bring the picture closer to you.

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The endless story of OSPF vs IS-IS

Whenever you have a little IGP chit chat you’ll hit this endless story. I’ve tried to reach a final solid conclusion my self but IMHO its all about personal preference and taste. It is something like a Ferrari vs Lamborghini story, they offer comparable performance, but totally different feeling. It is all about a good design, that contains a balanced mixture of scalability, convergence, flexibility, extensibility, resources consumption, configuration, troubleshooting, etc. In this series of posts I’ll try to contrast their likes and differences (not the Ferrari vs Lamborghini of course!), however I am not going to try to influence …

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BGP Route Refresh Capability

Service Providers or Large enterprises commonly change routing policies from time to time, specially when adding new links or peering relationships with other entities. When you change the inbound policy of your BGP speaker you need to reprocess the updates you received from that peer. BGP4 has no mechanism of requesting a re-advertisements from one of its peers. One solution to this problem is to store the received information local on the router and reprocess them without the need to refer to the peer who sent these updates. This option consumes a lot of resources on the router when you …

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