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Wael Osama

Jumbo Frames

In the past few days we have been doing some tests for Ethernet MTU “The never ending story” in our MPLS backbone.  Playing with MTU for long may have bad effects on your health on the long run 🙂 but is still a must to have an operational network. We …

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Link state protocols and Areas concept

Link state protocols have introduced the concept of multiple routing areas withing the same routing domain. Link state protocols depend on the fact that all routers must have an identical link state database and then each router will start calculating its very own routing table from this information. However, this …

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Black hole filtering

Black hole filtering is a technique usually used by service providers for traffic filtering without applying access-lists. The technique is very useful in mitigation of many types of DOS attacks. The idea behind Black hole filtering is very simple; just define the traffic you want to discard and configure a …

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VRF Lite

The word VRF stands for Virtual Routing and Forwarding, this feature is used to create multiple instances of the routing table on the same routing device. VRFs are usally used in conjunction with MPLS VPN to separate the traffic of multiple MPLS VPN customers. VRF Lite feature is part of …

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BGP Route Reflector Basics

Everyone who ever studied BGP knows that BGP has strong rules to prevent routing and updates loops. In this post I will focus on iBGP loop prevention and specifically route reflectors as a result. The rule states: that any route received from an iBGP neighbor must not be advertised to any other …

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Interview with Emmanuel Conde

Today I have a special treat for you — an exclusive written interview with the CCIE Agent Emmanuel Conde. Eman (Emmanuel Conde) has the distinction of being the only CCIE recruiter promoted by World Wide Channels of Cisco Systems.   Eman earned this distinction because of his tireless efforts on behalf …

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