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Wael Osama

ARP Caching and Timeout

From time to time I find myself craving to the fundamentals; I do this for two main reasons, the first one is that fundamentals are the building blocks of all complex networking topics and deeply understanding them makes a better engineer, the second one is longing to simplicity after doing …

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MPLS VPN security threats

MPLS L3 VPN services is widely used nowadays by many enterprises and organizations. They provide a lot of flexibility in connecting different sites compared to L2VPN services and offloads a lot of the responsibilities from the enterprise to the provider. I have gained all my networking experience in service provider …

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Static routes and next hops

Today I have received a question by mail from one of our readers asking about the difference between pointing the static route to a next hop address or pointing it to the exit interface itself as shown in the example below: !-- Pointing to next hop address ip route 0.0.0.0 …

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WISB Free Telnet Tool

WISB is our first free application to the networkers community. The application is used to simplify mass configuration tasks on multiple devices, by automating the telnet connectivity and applying the configuration provided in the configuration files. Currently it is supporting IOS devices only. After stabilizing this beta version we are …

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What is LDP extended discovery?

Normally LDP neighbors are found automatically by sending UDP Hello packets on Port 646 with the destination of multicast address 224.0.0.2 out of each LDP enabled interface. In some MPLS applications a LDP session must be established between non directly connected peers to exchange labels. In such cases Hello packets …

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