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Wael Osama

BGP Attributes: Atomic Aggregate Atribute

Atomic aggregate is a Well-known Discretionary attribute; it must be recognized by all BGP implementations and does not have to exist in all BGP updates. The purpose of the attribute is to alert BGP speakers along the path that some information have been lost due to the route aggregation process and that the aggregate path might not be the best path to the destination. When some routes are aggregated by an aggregator, the aggregator does attache its Router-ID to the aggregated route into the AGGREGATOR_ID attribute and it sets the ATOMIC_AGGREGATE attribute or not; based on whether the AS_PATH information …

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The Ongoing Internet Core Routing Race

Juniper Networks is taking the lead of the internet routing again by introducing their new platform T4000. The router can handle 240Gbps per slot and is based on 250Gbps ASICs per slot presenting the world’s fastest router. This router provides double capacity per slot in comparison the Cisco’s CRS3 platform. The new speeds and capacities will offer the world a new innovations that were never possible before. I wonder, where is this leading us toward? and What innovations will be presented during the next decade? I can see a world where almost every person is connected to the internet on …

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BGP Attribute Types and Flags

BGP attributes is an interesting subject of study.  BGP is a very flexible and extensible protocol and I like that, let’s see how flexible is that protocol when it comes to attributes handling. We all know that BGP has four types of attributes as listed: Well-known mandatory. Well-known discretionary. Optional transitive. Optional non-transitive. I am not going to explain them in this post, they are explained everywhere over the internet. However, in short well-known attributes must be recognized by all BGP implementations, some of them are mandatory and must be included in all update messages, others are discretionary and may …

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Measuring your SUCCESS

Try to ask five different persons about what success means to each of them and you will get at least five different answers. Try yourself Now: What is your definition of SUCCESS and do you consider yourself successful?. For me, success is a feeling about one’s status compared to some reference or metric; the metric can be a self imposed or an external one set by others or the environment. This can be a quantity of something, schedule, internal/external state, role model or anything else.

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MPLS Label Distribution: LDP Part3

So far so good, we have finished two parts of LDP and in this post we are going to explore another function of the four major functions of LDP. After an LDP session is initialized, LDP peers start to exchange label mappings according to the pre-negotiated parameters. In this post I will assume that LDP is using the most common label distribution modes for as follows: MPLS Label Space: Per platform label space. MPLS label retention mode: Liberal label retention. MPLS Label distribution mode: unsolicited downstream. MPLS Label control mode: Independent label distribution.

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It is time to make a CHANGE

One thing in life is not changing and that is that it is changing. We are networking guys; we know this better than anyone else, everyday we see a new technology coming or an old one diminishing. Somethings go and others come back. Bear with me a little; take a moment to think of your daily life from the time you get up in the morning to the time you go back to your bed; think of your routine, actions, thoughts, people you meet, transportation, etc. When was the last time you made a change? Even a simple one? Life …

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