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Wael Osama

The Role of BGP in MPLS networks

In almost every book you will read about MPLS, the author will state that one of the MPLS benefits is having a BGP free core network; sometimes they explain it sometimes not. However, to really understand this statement I encourage you to imagine removing MPLS from your core network and …

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MPLS Label Operations

In my previous post I explained what MPLS is and how it works from a high level perspective. In this post I will explain MPLS label operations and how labeled packets are processed in MPLS networks. When a labeled packet is received the label value at the top of the …

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What is MPLS?

What is MPLS? MPLS stands for Multi-protocol Label Switching. MPLS is a packet forwarding technology that is capable of carrying any L3 protocol and here comes the word multi-protocol. MPLS is capable of tunneling L3 packets inside the MPLS network using  MPLS labels. The MPLS label is pushed into the …

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BGP Route Refresh Capability

Service Providers or Large enterprises commonly change routing policies from time to time, specially when adding new links or peering relationships with other entities. When you change the inbound policy of your BGP speaker you need to reprocess the updates you received from that peer. BGP4 has no mechanism of …

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BGP Security

BGP is a critical component of the internet, bring BGP down and you bring the internet down or at least large portions of the internet. The problem is that BGP is highly vulnerable to many types of attacks for its implementation. BGP runs over TCP on port 179 and inherits …

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Choosing PE-CE Routing protocol

When it comes to choosing your PE-CE routing protocol, Which one do you think is best? Choosing the PE-CE routing protocol for MPLS VPN  is an ongoing debate between back end network teams and those who have customer interface roles. They are always trying to satisfy the customer and we …

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