L2VPN Pseudowire Redundancy (MPLS AToM Redundancy)

The MPLS L2VPN is growing exponentially,  back to the old days, customers were preferring FR and ATM VPN model due to the weakness of  Peer-to-Peer VPN model at this time, but after MPLS become fact on  the ground most of these customer migrated to MPLS L3VPN which solved all the …

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IS-IS explained Part2 (Routing Levels)

The concept of Areas was introduced in OSPF or link state protocols in general and routers had different roles based on their location in the topology. We have backbone routers, Area border routers, ASBRs and so on. IS-IS is implementing the same concept of areas named as routing domains and …

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What is Integrated ISIS?

The IS-IS Routing Protocol may be used as an IGP to support IP as well as OSI. This allows a single routing protocol to be used to support pure IP environments, pure OSI environments, and dual environments. Integrated IS-IS is deployed extensively in an IP-only environment in the top-tier Internet …

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